European Journal of Sustainable Development European Center of Sustainable Development en-US European Journal of Sustainable Development 2239-5938 Is Income Convergence Possible with a Diminishing Industry’s Output? Development Gap and Structural Changes in Montenegro Since the World War II <p>Intensive industrialisation in the second half of XX century was the main driving force of the most dynamic economic growth in the Montenegrin economic history. Since the transition from self-management socialism to a market-oriented economy, the Montenegrin economy has become more service-oriented. Empirical studies show that TFP growth is higher in industry and knowledge-intensive services than in other services, leading to service-oriented economies growing at a lower rate. This study confirms the same for the Montenegrin economy. If industry and knowledge-intensive services do not expand, will Montenegro diverge instead of converging to developed economies? The results from this study contribute to convergence analysis and serve as an example of the growth prospects of developing countries with fewer industry and knowledge services-oriented economies.</p> Zivko Andrijasevic Maja Bacovic Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 1 1 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p1 “Others” in the Ukrainian Society as a Result of the Modern Russian-Ukrainian War <p>The article is devoted to the usage of identification processes as means of struggle with enemies during “the new wars”. The meaning of the notion “others” is distinguished through the analysis of such definitions as “others/their our” (“other out-group” and “other in-group”) and “others/outsiders”. The actual problems of “the others” for contemporary Ukraine, caused by significant transformations due to Russian aggression which has been lasting since 2014, are shown. Russia-Ukrainian military conflict is an example of a “new war’s” means that ruins a state not only inside but outside. The Russian Federation is depictured using controlled identification processes in the occupied Crimea and so-called LPR-DPR that, in future, may work against Ukraine. The main attention is paid to the difference, basis and directions of forced migrations in the Crimea and the LPR-DPR which were made by the RF. It is determined that in the Crimea the RF actively changes the demographic situation in the Crimea by: 1) forcing the Crimean Tatar population to leave; 2) substituting the Crimean political elite by migrants from continental Russia; 3) populating the territory by Russian servicemen. In contrast to the Crimea, demographic policy of the RF in the LPR-DPR is of temporary character and is directed to the accommodation either of servicemen or the RF’s mercenaries in order to take part in the war. After accomplishing their mission, they will return to the RF. The author analyses the practice of “society compaction” in the LPR-DPR as the means to change the local population into “others/outsiders” for the RF as well as for Ukraine.</p> Tetiana Poiarkova Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 20 20 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p20 The Role of Higher Education Institutions in Developing Employability Skills of Saudi Graduates Amidst Saudi 2030 Vision <p>In alignment with sustainable goals outlined by Saudi Vision 2030, the research paper aimed to investigate the views on employability skills in higher education by exploring the perceptions of Saudi students and education leaders. The study’s qualitative design caters to the exploration of the practical significance of employability skills and attributes of Saudi graduates as a function allowing to address unemployment and strengthen the economy. The researchers analyzed two sets of qualitative data collected from a sample of Saudi students (n=49) and a sample of education leaders (n=6) with the help of Likert-scale questionnaires and open-ended questionnaires, respectively. Corroborated with the scholarly evidence, the explorative analysis of the data showed the practical significance of employability skills of Saudi graduates for achieving the country’s economic goals through the means of sustainable employability. Overall, the results are consistent with the current scholarship on the topic suggesting that all stakeholders should partake in the development of initiatives and programs that hone transversal employability skills. In the context of Saudi Arabia, the ongoing unemployment crisis necessitates the introduction of a national policy that would formulate a collaborative agreement between the three main stakeholders - employment-seekers, employers, and higher education institutions.</p> Nadia Yusuf Yussra Jamjoom Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 31 31 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p31 Cultural Heritage and Nation Branding: A Marketing Driver for Sustainable Development <p>Until recently, brands and branding were used almost exclusively in a commercial context as tools employed in the promotion and sales of different goods and services. The extension of the scope of marketing to the societal level has expanded the area of ​​branding applicability from economic to social, from profit to non-profit, and from individuals to nations. Valuable elements, an important part of them having a solid cultural background, can be identified and employed nowadays to build and capitalize on brands not only for products and services but also for individuals and communities, respectively organizations and nations. Does cultural heritage matter, and if so, to what extent, in the endeavors of building, promoting, and capitalizing on a nation's brand? Can cultural heritage contribute to the nation's branding effort and act together as a marketing driver to enable a country's sustainable development? These are the questions this paper aims to answer from a marketing perspective, after assessing the secondary data on cultural heritage, nations' branding, and dimensions of sustainable development for a group of selected countries.</p> Călin Vegheș Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 42 42 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p42 Scenarios of the Foreign Investments in the Sectors and Areas Promoting Development of the Tourism Sector <p>The role of direct investments is important for the development of the fields promoting the tourism sector.&nbsp; The aim of the article is to assess, based on the examples of other countries, what field of the tourism sector needs development and what methods could be applied in Georgia for its promotion. How can tax liberalism promote such a hotel direction as “apart -hotel” status which is growing despite the COVID situation. By investing in apart-hotel, a person receives not only a highly profitable investment asset, but also a flexible financial instrument. The analyses of various investment scenarios will reveal the model of efficient use of the country’s investment and resource potential which will be aimed at the development of the sector via investment in the field development promoting the tourist sector development.</p> Asie Tsintsadze Natia Diasamidze Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 55 55 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p55 Trends in Global Infrastructure Investment and Financial Consequences <p>Governments all around the world are faced with economic and social problems borne from the need for modern and reliable infrastructure. Rapid urbanization, increasing population size and economic growth are the main causes of increasing infrastructure investment needs in the world. While the need is growing, government budgets are increasingly squeezed by demands for healthcare improvements, defence, education and many others. The problems in the provision of finance for these investments are aggravated with the new Covid crisis, as the funds reserved for infrastructure investments are now likely to be allocated to urgent needs such as healthcare and unemployment benefits. In such a volatile environment, identifying future investment needs and discussing how these needs will be met is important and timely more than ever. This paper, introduces the global infrastructure investment trends in the future and discusses the use of public and private finance for infrastructure spending. In this concept, the following questions are explored, (1) What is the volume and trend of global infrastructure investment needs? (2) How do infrastructure investment needs differ among regions? (3) How will this infrastructure investment needs be financed?, and (4) What may be some of the future issues to be solved? To find out future infrastructure investment needs and trends, reports outlining the future prospects of the infrastructure sector are examined and trends are revealed. Then, a review of financing mechanisms is introduced in the light of the main procurement systems used by governments for realizing infrastructure projects. In this concept, design-bid-build, design-build and project finance models are explored in terms of their organizational and financial structure. Future issues to be solved are mainly derived from a cross examination of concerns raised in published infrastructure investment case studies and of future trends. Results reveal that the need for investment in infrastructure is growing steadily. As a response to this growth, the use of private finance is increasingly being encouraged by governments all over the world and a variety of international organizations. However, it appears that long-standing private finance issues predominantly observed in demand-based projects will continue to be discussed over the coming years by policymakers, scholars and communities. Indeed, many governments and organizations are already speeding up research efforts into ensuring the resilience of public private partnerships (PPP) in infrastructure projects. The insights from this research are expected to revive interest and research efforts into the potential future challenges for infrastructure financing and options available for governments.</p> Selin Gundes Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 66 66 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p66 Assessing Imbalance between Labor Quality and Needs of the Labor Market of Ukraine: Educational Challenges <p>The purpose of the study is to assess the imbalance between the quality of labor and the needs of the national labor market and harmonize the supply of the national education system to meet the demands of social production. The analysis of actual (statistical) data is carried out; the method of expert survey is used to identify imbalances between labor and education markets. The needs of the national labor market for experts with digital and creative skills are substantiated. The authors focused on the problem of imbalance in the market of educational services and demand for labor with appropriate skills in the labor market of Ukraine. According to the results of the analysis, it has been found that the domestic labor market is characterized, on the one hand, by excessive qualification of the labor force, which is manifested in the excess of the educational level of employees over the demand for such specialists. This is reflected in the lack of decent jobs in the national labor market. On the other hand, the national labor market is characterized by a shortage of employees with digital skills. Expert assessments of specialists in labor, education and digital economy have revealed a lack of focus of all education levels on the formation of digital and creative skills in the actual and potential labour force. Approaches to the study of imbalances in national labor markets and educational services have been further developed. The main trends in labor skills formation and demand for them among employers in the national labor market in the context of digitalization have been identified. Compared with previous studies, the research contains the results of an expert survey. The obtained results serve as a research basis for the development of strategic decisions in the field of markets balancing and education in the context of digitalization of the economy.</p> Olga Novikova Nadiya Azmuk Oksana Pankova Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 77 77 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p77 Sustainable Development of Agriculture in Poland – Towards Organization and Biodiversity Improvement? <p>Presently, the sustainable development of agriculture is the priority for nations, organizations and generally for the world. Different aspects are considered in the issue of sustainability of agriculture. In agriculture sustainability evaluation, holistic approach is needed, that determine the selection of different indicators and important farms` group for the assessment. Environmentally sustainable agriculture is the state, that should be characterized by proper farms’ organization, as well as biodiversity conservation. Taking into account the need of sustainability, the its evaluation gaining the importance. The aim of the paper is to present the scope of progress in environmental agriculture sustainability in Poland. Using public statistics for 2005, 2007 and 2016 of Statistics Poland and data about areas with high nature value farmlands (HNVfs), the direction in which tends Polish agriculture was indicated, putting particular attention to agriculture production organization and biodiversity protection. There was used a set of indicators that enable to evaluate the analyzed phenomenon, based on uniform, national data and legal documents. Research results indicated that Poland has a great potential of valuable natural farming areas. Environmental development of agriculture is observed.</p> Wioletta Wrzaszcz Marek Zieliński Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 87 87 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p87 Sustainable Fishery and Renewable Energy in Perspective of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Re-visiting SDG Indicators 7.2.1 and 14.7.1 <p>This article explores sustainable fishery and renewable energy with the perspective of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with a special focus on improving the data collection, computation, reporting and analysis for SDG Indicators 7.2.1 and 14.7.1. This article finds that the estimation of renewable energy consumed in fishing vessels/fleets, which is a part of SDG Indicator 7.2.1, can be used to estimate the costs for preserving and/or processing fishes on board, which is essential to compute the value added of marine fishery. A number of practice-oriented implications, especially in the context of small island developing states (SIDS) and least developed countries (LDCs), are discussed in this article. For example, international organizations may consider taking effective actions in capacity development and awareness raising, especially in SIDS and LDCs. More interdisciplinary studies, which can provide evidence for holistic approaches to support the development renewable energy and its use in fishing vessels/fleets, should also be encouraged. This article, as an early conceptual research in this field, also have limitations which should be addressed by future studies.</p> Suyu Liu Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 101 101 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p101 Do SDGs Really Matter for Business? Using GRI Sustainability Reporting to Answer the Question <p>The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present an opportunity for companies to address the world’s biggest sustainable development challenges. In doing so, SDGs require companies to integrate sustainability into their strategic decisions, making stakeholders aware about the corporate contribution to SDGs. To this aim, according to Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines, corporate sustainability reporting is a powerful tool to explain if SDGs really matter to the private sector and in what ways companies effectively contribute to them. The paper analyses SDG reporting practices of a sample of companies of different sizes operating in the tourism sector. The aim of the analysis is to seize how companies identify relevant sustainability challenges and set SDGs priorities. Findings reveal that despite companies cite SDGs in their reports, they do not explain how significant sustainability initiatives shape the business contribution to SDGs.&nbsp; The study adds to the literature on corporate SDGs reporting by highlighting the need for a practical approach to guide companies towards transparency in sustainability reporting about their relevant contribution to the Agenda 2030.</p> Roberta Costa Tamara Menichini Gennaro Salierno Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 113 113 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p113 The Reasons for the Growth of the US Stock Market <p>Sustained economic growth as well as the reasons for this growth are fundamental and important issues in economic theory. The article considers the hypothesis regarding the influence of these two factors on the growth of the United States stock market: the country's gross domestic product as well as the money supply in various aggregators. The purpose of the work is to determine the reasons for the growth of the United States stock market. The following methods were used to determine the influence of the gross domestic product and the money supply on the corresponding stock market, namely, the correlation-regression and graphical analysis as well as the comparison of average annual growth rates. It has been discovered that in order to objectively find out the causal relationship between the factors, it is important to use such methods through the integrated approach. As a result, it has been observed that the fluctuations in the gross domestic product of the USA do not significantly affect those in the stock market of the country. On the contrary, the economic and mathematical models of the S &amp; P-500 stock index and the money supply are similar. The corresponding similarity allowed the authors to substantiate the existence of a significant impact of the change in the money supply on the dynamics of its stock market. In turn, the reason for the growth of this index is a significant reduction in the key rate, which results in cheaper prices for credits.</p> Illia Morhachov Olga Chorna Olshanskyi Oleksandr Andrii Martynov Ievgen Ovcharenko Olena Khandii Yevhen Ivchenko Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 124 124 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p124 SDGs in the Covid 19 Storm (Example on Climate Pact Ambassadors Role) <p>The Climate Pact was launched in December 2020, with hope that the upcoming vaccine would help us overcome the COVID-19 pandemic “storm”. Even though humans are in the canter of the Covid pandemic storm, it is still important not to forget the climate change challenge, as it is a highly active “factory”. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine for the climate change process and biodiversity crises. The Climate Pact is an opportunity to create a European-wide movement that supports, encourages and acknowledges individual climate achievements.&nbsp;According to SDG 13 (climate action), Climate Pact encourages actions such as: green areas, green transport, green buildings and green skills. Also, it is important to expand sustainable consumption and production, the quality of soil, healthy food and sustainable diets, oceans, and rural and coastal areas. Therefore, Climate Pact is a driver for Sustainable Development Goals, and it is based on the ideas and contributions of all interested individuals and various organisations. Climate Pact Ambassadors are representatives of civil society and citizens with the strength for action (despite the Covid 19 pandemic “storm”) and collaboration among themselves as well as with researchers, academic citizens and policy makers to beat climate change and give contribution to SDG 13.</p> Marija Jevtic Catherine Bouland Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 135 135 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p135 Marketing Activities of Extractive Industry Enterprises in Ukraine in Overcoming the Consequences of the Corona Crisis <p>The study evaluated the state of international activities of extractive industry enterprises of Ukraine in the conditions of overcoming the consequences of corona crisis. The system of indicators to assess the effectiveness of their marketing activities in conditions caused by the pandemic coronavirus COVID-19 was developed. The evaluation system proposed in the study includes the analysis of indicators of production volume of the main types of extractive industry products, the dynamics of kaolin mining volumes in Ukraine and the dynamics of sales volumes of extractive industry products by Ukrainian enterprises on international markets. Also the structure of sales volumes of extractive industry products by Ukrainian enterprises on international markets was determined. An important stage of the proposed research methodology is the assessment of indicators of convergence of international markets in the conditions of overcoming the consequences of corona crisis. In the process of the study a comprehensive assessment of the convergence of Ukrainian enterprises of extractive industry in the conditions of overcoming the consequences of corona crisis was carried out. The approach is based on the application of ranks summation method for rating international markets by the system of dynamic indicators. The results of the study made it possible to determine the marketing attractiveness of markets of Belgium, Canada, Netherlands, Bangladesh, Hong Kong China, Pakistan for the activities of domestic enterprises of extractive industry at them, and assess their convergence. The last stage of the research was an expert assessment of convergence indicators of international markets in the conditions of overcoming the consequences of the coronocrisis. As a result of such assessment four international convergent markets were identified - Belgium, Canada, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, which demonstrate favorable conditions for doing business at them, and which indicates the existence of convergent conditions for domestic mining companies to sell the commodity group "2507 Kaolin and other kaolin clays" at the markets".</p> Alona Tanasiichuk Svitlana Kovalchuk Vitalii Nianko Ruslan Boiko Sergii Drazhnitsya Yulia Holovchuk Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 147 147 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p147 Consideration(S) of the Consequential Effects of Quality Indicators for Sustainable Development in Health Care Practice and Delivery <p>Indicators play a major role in organizing, monitoring, and evaluating quality improvement in health care. They reflect the existing and desired level of service delivery, making it possible to define measures to achieve the desired level, monitoring their implementation and the success of the programme. The idea of the usefulness of accurate indicators in ensuring sustainable development is currently beyond doubt and acts as a paradigm (generally accepted truth) in the ideology of sustainable development. The purpose of this article is to demystify this paradigmatic status and draw attention to the important side effect of their use. It is the phenomenon of an alternative way to improve indicators (AWII) – identifying and using opportunities to improve indicators without improving the quality of medical services. The article discusses the prevalence of this phenomenon, its main types, the dependence of the type AWII on the characteristics of a used quality indicator, their role in distorting the link between quality indicator readings and actual quality, the conditions stimulating the use of AWII, and barriers that oppose its use. A system of measures aimed at the timely prevention of AWII is discussed.</p> Karina Palkova Roger Fisher Viktoras Justickis Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 162 162 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p162 Building Upon Service-Learning in Higher Education: Lessons Learned and Future Recommendations <p>Service-learning is an educational approach that has been proven to cultivate public conscience by combining the learning objectives of curriculum content with student involvement in community service. The current study explores the various impacts of a service-learning project directed toward psychology students tutoring children with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results are taken from the perspective of 114 Kosovar students and 20 parents of children with disabilities involved in the project. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic has amplified the challenges that families of children with disabilities already faced. The tutoring sessions had a positive effect on family well-being and children’s academic achievements. The students reported improved attitudes toward children with disabilities and increased self-efficacy and motivation for community engagement. Service-learning is promoted as a teaching method that attends to societal needs, helps students reflect on their experiences and competency, facilitates a better understanding of the consequences of public policy, and contributes to responsible citizens and compassionate professionals. This study adds to the literature by highlighting the substantial results and potential benefits of service-learning and individualized support for children with disabilities and their parents by discussing the implications for practice and future research.</p> Zamira Hyseni Duraku Mirjeta Nagavci Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 175 175 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p175 Policy Implications to Mitigate Economic Impact of Covid-19 and Enhance Healthcare Services during Pandemic in Saudi Arabia <p>In this recent time COVID-19 effect is becoming as a serious challenge for all human beings across the world. Saudi Arabia has secured 26<sup>th</sup> rank as health care service provider among all the nations globally. This study has included policy implications to improve health care services and economic activities in Saudi Arabia amid COVID-19 pandemic situation. Along with this, various effective initiatives taken by the government also has been mentioned in this study to identify its effectiveness. The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the economic condition and the healthcare systems of Saudi Arabia is described briefly. Saudi government has invested USD 31.9 billion stimulus package to mitigate economic challenges amid the pandemic situation. Suitable investments are also made to incorporate digital tools in health care services. SAR 2 billion has been allocated to support 1000 small and medium health sectors, SAR 120 billion has been allocated to overcome financial crisis and SAR 9 billion is allocated to protect employment in private sector units.</p> Nadia Yusuf Mai Talal Mohammed Rajeh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 191 191 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p191 The Task of "recycling-revitalization" as a Priority of Sustainable Development of Ukrainian Industrial Cities <p>Ukrainian industrial cities are characterized by a high level of technogenic load and pollution of the territory, which determines the priority of strengthening environmental safety in comparison with the other two components of sustainable development, ensuring social consensus and rational using of local resources. The environmental safety fortification actualizes the research of the processes of introducing of circular economy elements into production and restoration of urban territories which are occupied by industrial waste, i.e. solving the "recycling-revitalization" task in an industrial city. The general scientific and special methods of cognition have been used during the research. So, it allowed us to obtain the following results. The objective necessity and possibility of the "recycling-revitalization" task solving by Ukrainian industrial cities on the basis of the development and implementation of programs and projects, as well as the formation of eco-industrial parks has been substantiated. The experience of introducing of circular economy elements and ecological revitalization of the industrial cities’ territories in Europe and the United States has been analyzed including industrial symbiosis and powers in the environmental sphere of local governments. Three approaches to the management of industrial waste in the city have been considered: production-oriented, social-oriented, marketing-oriented. It has been determined that the production-oriented approach allows to form and implement of "recycling-revitalization" task solutions within the city. The organizational and economic solutions of "recycling-revitalization" task have been presented. The organizational solutions include coordinated interaction of enterprises of the city-forming, urban maintenance and urban planning sector in the management of industrial waste. Economic solutions to the “recycling-revitalization” task involve the using of three matrix models: a model of balanced resource allocation; assessing the impact of local indicators on the integral indicator of economic efficiency; model for accounting for uncertainty and risk factors. It has been argued that a socially-oriented and marketing-oriented approach to waste management in Ukrainian industrial cities presupposes concerted actions of participants at the regional and interregional level, which requires institutional and logistical support, which should be the subject of further research<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Maryna Melnykova Mykola Boichenko Nadiia Ragulina Iryna Kocheshkova Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 212 212 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p212 Impact of digital performance in growing businesses (Case study Republic of Kosovo) <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of this Article is related to the impact that digital performance exerts on development of countries in transition. The data for this article were extracted from a wider survey conducted in the Republic of Kosovo.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A large number of factors were analyzed in this paper, with a view of presenting the whole impact of digital performance and importance of business development in continuity. This survey includes businesses and employees. A special focus was made on management of digital transformation, value chains and a strategic aspect which result to be among major factors influencing the business performance The paper includes a methodology of research, research questions and hypotheses, survey data report divided into two sections (viewpoint of company and employees), and a final chapter of the paper relates to the presentation of conclusions and recommendations of the study</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Results of this paper show that there is a positive correlation between digital performance and business growth, however a special impact is made by human resources in establishing and implementing functional strategies, based on market demands and technological development trends.</p> <p>Practical implications: The digital transformation is a MUST for all business types. The Covid 19 situation approve the importance of business digitalization and benefits of this investment.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Originality:</strong> The study is conducted with primary and secondary data and all the empirical analysis are original based on the authors' calculations through econometric models.</p> Ermira Shehu Osman Sejfijaj Fisnik Morina Fatmir Memaj Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 11 1 230 230 10.14207/ejsd.2022.v11n1p230