European Journal of Sustainable Development http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd en-US editor@ecsdev.org (Prof. Gian Paolo Caselli) contact@ecsdev.org (Diamantina Allushaj) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 03:03:34 +0100 OJS 3.2.1.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Conscious Tourism’s Dimension in the Historical Villages of Portugal http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1151 <p>Recent growth in the tourism sector has promoted the emergence of alternative types of tourism, such as rural tourism. Located in low-density territories, the Historical Villages of Portugal are one of the best examples regarding regional development from the perspective of sustainability. Although it is such an important topic today and gives longevity to destinations, its approach from the conscious tourism perspective is still little valued. This article discusses tourists’ characteristics seeking Historical Villages, their behaviour, as well as their awareness and perception of the possible impacts they may cause. Intends to understand the perspective of the tourist experience in the Historical Villages region, and to ascertain the existence of conscious behaviours in rural destinations. Surveys were applied to 453 tourists of the Historical Villages. The main results obtained show that the sociodemographic profile influences the application of conscious practices, and the conscious tourist’s attitude will contribute to the overall satisfaction concerning the destination. Also, the better the tourist's relationship with the destination and his overall satisfaction, the more likely he is to implement conscious practices. The results obtained should be evaluated by the regional DMOs with a view to implementing and developing conscious practices at these destinations.</p> Pedro Liberato, Isabel Cerqueira, Dália Liberato Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1151 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Corporate Social Responsibility as Core Competence for the Business Model of Social Start-Ups in the Netherlands http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1152 <p>Little is known about how social enterprises and social start-ups compete with the bigger players on the market. It could be reasoned that social start-ups gain an advantage by the deployment of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) elements from the early beginning as a part of their core competences. The aim of this paper is to investigate if CSR elements can be a core competence and how they can contribute to the robustness of the business models of social start-ups. Data was gathered by conducting a case study and interviewing four social entrepreneurs in the first half of 2017. The data was analyzed with the help of a framework built upon the CSR pyramid, the business case for CSR and the Canvas business model. The main findings show that the CSR elements economic, ethical and discretionary responsibilities can be a core competence for social start-ups. Moreover, CSR elements can play an important role in the design of social business models. Especially the deployment of interrelationships between the CSR elements seems to be effective in designing a robust&nbsp; business model of a social start-up.</p> Herman T. Wevers, Cosmina L. Voinea Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1152 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Fiscal and Monetary Policy of Economic Development http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1153 <p>Fiscal and monetary policy coordination should focus on increasing public welfare and maintaining long-term macroeconomic stability. This article aims to enhance the theoretical and methodological basis of fiscal and monetary policy formation and determine the priority areas for improving their coordination to ensure sustainable economic development. We developed an institutional approach to study the fiscal-monetary mix. It is advisable to create favorable monetary conditions for fiscal measures and form a balanced budget for monetary regulation. The authors proposed the structural-functional model that highlights both fiscal and monetary policies’ impact on aggregate demand. The results showed no positive effects of general government expenditures on the GDP per capita growth in 19 emerging economies from 1995 to 2018. The influence of public spending on economic growth depends on institutions’ quality, the composition of expenditures, and fiscal architecture. The expediency of increasing the share of productive expenditures that positively affect stimulating the economy is substantiated. In the long-run, monetary policy should ensure a comprehensive combination of inflation targeting conditions, the adaptive use of tools to achieve intermediate and final targets.</p> Igor Chugunov, Mykola Pasichnyi, Valeriy Koroviy, Tetiana Kaneva, Andriy Nikitishin Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1153 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Linking Different Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) via Food Production Diversity: A Comparative Study of Two Countries in Arabian Desert http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1154 <p>There is a growing interest of the linkages between different SDGs as the interactions between SDGs are more and more observed. Food production diversity’s role in linking different SDGs deserves more attention, as it is directly related to a variety of SDGs such as SDG 1 (poverty reduction), SDG 2 (no hunger), and SDG 8 (economic growth and decent work). This article empirically examines the food production diversity in Saudi Arabia and Oman with Herfindal-Hirschmann Index, which measures food production diversity via the distribution of establishments and employees across 14 food production economic activities. It finds that in Saudi Arabia, the food production diversity is significantly lower and less changed than Oman. However, this may be caused by the much larger scale of food production in Saudi Arabia than Oman. Food production diversity is also possibly associated with cuisine culture, geographic location, and labor intensity in food production. However, there is insufficient evidence whether severe climate has an impact on food production diversity.</p> Suyu Liu Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1154 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Assessing the Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Regions’ Socio-Economic Development: The Case of Ukraine http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1155 <p>Solving the problems of regional development belongs to the category of strategic and most important of each country. The COVID-19 pandemic has become the biggest challenge for the world economic system, causing a significant impact on the reduction of key macroeconomic indicators, changes in business conditions, which has raised the issue of assessing the social and economic development of regions. The paper considers the application of composite index assessment technology for the consequences of COVID-19 on the development indicators of Ukraine's regions. The comparison was conducted according to the data of the first two quarters of 2019 and 2020. For the study, eight indicators were selected, which by content feature were divided into a subset of economic indicators and a subset of social indicators. A partial composite development index was designed for each subset. The principal components method was used to calculate the weights of the components. The results of the analysis showed that the COVID-19 pandemic had a greater impact on economic development: for each region, there is a decrease in the value of the indicator. While for a partial composite index of social development such a decrease is less noticeable. The reflection of the regions in the space of these composite indices showed that their structure remained virtually unchanged. The analysis of the common composite index of regional development, designed by the convolution of partial composite indices indicators, also showed a decrease in its values in 2020. The paper analyses the measures taken by the Government of Ukraine to neutralize the effects of the pandemic.</p> Pavlo Hryhoruk, Nila Khrushch, Svitlana Grygoruk, Kateryna Gorbatiuk, Liudmyla Prystupa Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1155 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Implementation of Public-Private Partnership Models in the Field of Ecological Modernization of the Environmental Safety System http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1156 <p>The article considers various forms of public-private partnership, which allow extensive use of private capital in solving many problems not only in the production of public goods and public services, production of natural monopolies, but also in providing natural and man-made and environmental security. It is determined that for the Ukrainian practice it is important to apply the best foreign experience in the implementation of innovative projects on the basis of public-private partnership (PPP). Positive foreign experience highlights the use of PPP in Ukraine as an alternative mechanism for financing innovative projects to implement and accelerate modernization transformations in the national economy. It is established that the implementation of PPP in Ukraine requires the formation of certain institutional conditions: definition of requirements to be met by operators wishing to enter the relevant industries, in particular: evidence of its financial security, evidence of its ability to operate; introduction of the project form of realization of the planned plans; substantiation of local self-government bodies for choosing the form of involvement of the private sector; introduction of an effective system of control by local governments over the performance of current functions and investment obligations by private operators; development of requirements for the reporting system of a private operator; involvement in decision-making on the transfer of infrastructure to the private sector, as well as determining the frequency and types of public control; development and implementation of a mechanism for determining the liability of private sector representatives for causing damage to the property of territorial communities by their actions or inaction and, conversely, determining a mutually acceptable mechanism for return of invested funds, etc. The PPP mechanism forms the basis for the joint responsibility of the state, community and business for the development of sectors that have priority for the regional economy, environmental protection, development of territorial communities.</p> Grygorii Kaletnik, Svitlana Lutkovska Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1156 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Ethical Guidelines for Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare from the Sustainable Development Perspective http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1157 <p>Use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in variety of areas has encouraged an extensive global discourse on the underlying ethical principles and values. With the rapid AI development process and its near instant global coverage, the issues of applicable ethical principles and guidelines have become vital. AI promises to deliver a lot of advantages to economic, social and educational fields. Since AI is also increasingly applied in healthcare and medical education areas, ethical application issues are growing ever more important. Ethical and social issues raised by AI in healthcare overlap with those raised by personal data use, function automation, reliance on assistive medical technologies and the so-called ‘telehealth’. Without well-grounded ethical guidelines or even regulatory framework in respect of the AI in healthcare several legal and ethical problems at the implementational level can arise. In order to facilitate further discussion about the ethical principles and responsibilities of educational system in healthcare using AI and to potentially arrive at a consensus concerning safe and desirable uses of AI in healthcare education, this paper performs an evaluation of the self-imposed AI ethical guidelines identifying the common principles and approaches as well as drawbacks limiting the practical and legal application of internal policies. The main aim of the research is to encourage integration of theoretical studies and policy studies on sustainability issues in correlation between healthcare and technologies, the AI ethical perspective.</p> Anrī Leimanis, Karina Palkova Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1157 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Evaluation of Hospital's Emergency Departments According to User Requirements http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1158 <p>Hospitals are large and complex structures that provide 24-hour healthcare. These structures, where many different functions are combined, are constantly changing and developing with innovations in health, technique, and economy. With the technological developments in the world, population growth, the desire to live healthier and longer, hospital structures are reshaped. These developments best define the changes made in programming according to the user needs. In order for hospital buildings to provide health services for many years, they must be durable and designed with developments in the future which can happen. Emergency departments are from the internal units of the hospital. The duty of the emergency department is to bring the patients to the emergency service, to make the first intervention to the patient according to the emergency situation, and to provide the best care to the patient by directing them to the required unit. The emergency department architecture must take into consideration human health while meeting patient and user needs. Emergency departments have evolved from the past to today in line with the new needs of the users. In this study, the space requirements and general design factors of emergency departments are explained.</p> Ayşe Hazal Aygün, Çilen Erçin Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1158 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Moral and Psychological Features of the Motivational Sphere of Juveniles who Commit Crimes: Risk Assessment of Determining Communication http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1159 <p>The purpose of this research is the identification of moral and psychological features of the motivational sphere of juvenile offenders (delinquents) and identification of risks in the process of socialization of juveniles that have a determining connection with the illegal (deviant) behavior of the child. The article presents the results of empirical studies of the specifics of the motivational sphere of juvenile offenders; the assessment of the risks caused by the weakening of the socializing role of family institutions, education, and upbringing is submitted. In addition, the statistical analysis of the moral and psychological characteristics of juveniles serving a sentence associated with imprisonment compared to a control group of peers who are not in conflict with the law is given.</p> Nataliіa Yuzikova, Tatiana Korniakova, Svitlana Khomiachenko, Tetiana Chasova Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1159 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Economic Structural Change on Income Inequality: Dynamic Heterogeneous Panel Approach http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1160 <p>This paper employs structural growth perspective to the analysis of income inequality in 43 countries over the period 2003-2017.The study utilizes two different panel estimation techniques. First, the panel least squares regression examines the relevance of Kuznets effect of the different economic sectors; agriculture, manufacturing and services on income inequality. Second, the pooled mean group (PMG) estimation of dynamic heterogeneous panels gauges the long run impact of the change in sectoral value added as a proxy for structural change on inequality. PMG presents short run adjustments to be country-specific due to the widely different impacts of macroeconomic conditions and vulnerability of each country to income inequality. Empirical findings show that across all countries, sector growth had no to negligible impact on inequality indicating that no signs are evident of Kuznets effect. However, both inflation and unemployment have mixed impacts on inequality in Lower and Middle-Income countries. Results further reveal that unemployment has a relatively stronger influence on inequality than inflation for Upper-middle income countries, unlike in Lower-middle income countries, where unemployment shows a weaker correlation with inequality than inflation. Results for High-income countries show that the influence between inflation and unemployment are not as big as in Upper middle-income countries.</p> Maha Elhini, Rasha Hammam Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1160 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Analysis of the Dynamics of Structural Processes in the Context of Ensuring Sustainable Development http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1161 <p>The tendencies and the extent of structural changes in the economy of the regions of Ukraine in the context of ensuring its sustainable development&nbsp; are examined in the context of the types of economic activity in terms of gross value added (GVA) during 2011-2018. In particular, the rate of change in the share of the structural mass of the economy of the regions that occurred during this period is estimated; the dynamic processes that took place in the structure of the economy of Ukrainian regions are analyzed. The analysis of the mass of structural changes shows their insignificant scale and reduction of the share in the structure of gross value added of such types of economic activity as industry, construction and finance. The estimation of intensity of structural changes by an indicator of average rates of their change shows low and rather differentiated level of intensity of structural changes in the context of types of economic activity. During the analyzed period, the annual average rate of structural changes in Ukraine was 0.131. Based on the calculation of the rate of structural changes, it is proved that structural changes in the economy of Ukraine are quite slow and are characterized by significant interregional differentiation, and the lack of positive dynamics in increasing the speed of structural changes in education is the main obstacle to creating an innovation-oriented model of economic development and reorientation of the structure of the regional economy to the requirements of the post-industrial type to the established concepts and dominants of sustainable development in accordance with EU standards.</p> Lilia Simkiv, Svitlana Shults, Olena Lutskiv, Uliana Andrusiv Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1161 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Ecological Aspect of Legal Provision of Modern Land Reform as a Factor of Sustainable Development http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1162 <p>The article is devoted to the analysis of the legal support of the Ukrainian land reform from the point of view of its ecological component and realization of the purposes of sustainable development. The ecological aspect of land reform in our state is represented by separate legislative steps of land rehabilitation. In particular, the organizational and legal bases of land melioration have been improved, including the maintenance of field protective forest belts, the legal bases of land division by purpose and territorial planning, etc. The Law on the Circulation of Agricultural Land is aimed at overcoming the moratorium on the alienation of agricultural land. One of its goals is to create conditions for the rational use of land and soil. And this is a prerequisite for their preservation, restoration and improvement, but requires further legal regulation. The paper uses positive foreign experience in land reforms, as well as international and foreign experience in the legal regulation of rational use and protection of land and soil. It is concluded that at the present stage of land reform, the state is trying to restore the efficient use of Ukrainian lands with minimal expenditure of state resources by creating legal, organizational and economic prerequisites, when landowners, land users and local communities, by virtue of their environmental and social legal awareness, legal culture and responsibilities, will be able to restore Ukraine's land potential and achieve sustainable development goals.</p> Olena Zaiets, Yuliia Vlasenko, Diana Busuyok, Elina Pozniak Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1162 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Non-Oil Sector and Economic Growth in Nigeria: The National Accounts Perspective http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1163 <p>This study examines the impact of expansion in non-oil sector on sustainable economic growth of Nigeria economy. The study sourced data from the Central bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin covering the periods of 2000 – 2019. An economic growth model was formulated using the study variables and the model was estimated using vector auto-regression&nbsp; (VAR) techniques, other diagnostic tests such as&nbsp; Roots of Characteristic Polynomial for VAR model stability, Augmented Dickey-Fuller test for time series stationarity, and granger causality tests were conducted to ensure the reliability of the model estimates. The analysis revealed that the estimated model is stable while the VAR and variance decomposition results shows that real gross domestic product is strongly endogenous in the short run but weakly endogenous in the long run. Further findings suggest that in the long run non-oil sector is strongly endogenous to real gross domestic product (92% contribution). The study, therefore, recommends diversification of the Nigerian economy by focusing more attention on agriculture, solid minerals, and service sectors as they tend to influence economic growth in the long run. More so, improved frameworks of accounting in areas of non-oil revenues are desirable for the accountancy profession.</p> Abel Oghenevwoke Ideh, Ndu Marvis Okolo, Emeka Steve Emengini Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1163 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Impact of Banking Competition on Economic Growth and Financial Stability: An Empirical Investigation http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1164 <p>The paper examines the level of competition in banking market using different econometric models and analyzes the impact of efficiency of the banking system on the economic growth of the country. The research discusses to ensure banking competition as a function of the Central Bank. Also, the paper includes some recommendations developed to improve banking competition. Our hypothesis is that the existence of high levels of banking competition and low concentration in the banking market balances the speed of money supply in the economic sector. As a result, the Central Bank's monetary policy will be more effective in achieving its core objectives. Therefore, banking competition contributes to the economic growth of the country. In addition, the monetary policy of the Central Bank concentrates on financial stability, which is one of the fundamental factors in the economic development of a country.</p> George Abuselidze Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1164 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Social-and-Ecological Aspects of Forage Production Reform in Ukraine in the Early 21st Century http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1165 <p>On the basis of the "three sigma" rule, a statistical stratification of the Ukrainian effective community into economic welfare groups according to their social and economic status has been carried out, thus creating the basis for substantiating the expediency of reforming the forage production sector in order to further expand the production of organic livestock products through the up-to-date approaches to the formation and use of climate adaptive feed-related phytocenoses. In order to increase the productivity of grass fodder, an innovative model of the grass-grazing complex has been developed. Its structure includes a cyclic wedge of long-term cereal-bean pasture which involves perennial grasses of the botanical species adapted to the zonal ecological and technological conditions, a satellite wedge of traditional mixtures of annual crops and atypical pasture plants – burnet polygamous (<em>Poterium poligamum</em> <em>Woldst. et Kit</em>.), prairie dock&nbsp;(<em>Silphium </em><em>perfolia</em><em>tum L.</em>) and others, whose herbage is used during the off-season, when the main cyclic wedge is found to be low-yielding, as well as a sheltered base, equipped with outdoor hoppers and shelters designed to protect animals in bad weather. The introduction of meadows and pastures in the system of zonal fodder production will contribute to the improvement and stabilization of the production of cheap and adequately nutritious herbal feeds thus increasing the resource potential of the area.</p> V. Puyu, M. Bakhmat, Y. Khmelianchyshyn, V. Stepanchenko, O. Bakhmat, H. Pantsyreva Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1165 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Factors That Affect Liquidity of Commercial Banks in Kosovo http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1166 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">A very important factor that affects the growth and survival of commercial banks is also the level of liquidity. Banking industry regulators require banks to possess liquid assets in order to fulfill their obligations to depositors and third parties accurately. Lack of liquidity reduces the ability of banks to meet their obligations and otherwise excess liquidity may be the cause of reduced profits for banks. There are many factors that can affect the position of liquidity in commercial banks and which factors cause unbalanced liquidity and as such also affect their performance. As a result, the study of these factors is of particular importance. The main objective of this study is to analyze the liquidity empathy of the banking sector to several specific banking and macroeconomic factors. To achieve this objective, the study uses regression analysis per a data set that includes a time of 8 years respectively the years 2012 - 2019. To build the necessary econometric model and to achieve the purpose of the study, data are taken from the publications of the Central Bank and the World Bank (GDP data), which data are analyzed for each quarter for the study period. After analyzing the available data, the study concludes that between the main factors that can affect the liquidity position of commercial banks, Non-performing loans, Capital adequacy, and Credit interest rate have the grand and most important impact on the liquidity banking position.</span></p> Donjeta Morina, Albert Qarri Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1166 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Socio-economic Potential of the Emerging Film Industry in Saudi Arabia http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1167 <p>The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia transformed from a developing Middle Eastern nation into a regional power with ambitious projects in a variety of sectors. In this framework, the government proceeded to legalize cinemas in 2018, with an unprecedented step of issuing seven licenses for major cinema operating businesses. All of the prominent steps designed to promote the film industry align with the broader concept of expanding Saudi Arabia’s cultural and economic boundaries by adopting a path towards modernization and diversification. As the study seeks to investigate the social and economic prospects of the newly-established motion picture sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the review is based on the recent commitments and current plans by Saudi authorities and associated organizations. From the socio-economic perspective, the decision to lift the ban on theatres is a crucial milestone, allowing the country to strengthen its entertainment sector. Despite the diversity of suggested strategic plans, the consensus of the Saudi authorities is to stimulate both local and foreign businesses seeking to open new cinemas in Riyadh, Jeddah, and other cities.</p> Lamia Saud Shesha, Nadia Yusuf Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1167 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Potential to Reduce Pollutant Emissions from Individual Household Sector by Involving Citizens as Project Stockholders http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1168 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">Atmospheric pollutants come from many sources, mainly from industry and transport as well as from households. Each sector is characterized by different specificity that concerns both the volume of emissions and the type of pollutants emitted. Each of them has also different potential to reduce the load of emissions. The purpose of this article is to show the role and potential of individual households in the fight to improve air quality. The article also aims at showing that by raising public awareness and changing habits of individual users of central heating installations, it is possible to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted from this sector. An important part of the work is a summary of a survey conducted among 150 residents of Wroclaw. The study entitled Awareness of residents of the city of Wroclaw about the sources of atmospheric pollution contained 27 questions regarding general knowledge and air quality in Wroclaw.</span></p> Małgorzata Pietras-Szewczyk Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1168 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Evaluation of Financial Sustainability of the Federal Health Institutions in Nigeria http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1169 <p>The study investigated the financial sustainability of the federal health institutions in Nigeria.&nbsp; The population of the study comprised twenty-five (25) federal health institutions from four (4) geo-political zones and Abuja.&nbsp; Secondary data were sourced from Annual General Warrant from the Office of the Accountant General of the Federation and Audited Financial Statements of the Public Sector Entities. Data obtained were analyzed using Balanced Score Card techniques.&nbsp; The results showed that none of the sampled federal&nbsp; health institutions in Nigeria&nbsp; attained a basic standard of sustainability test, whereby the ratios of their Internally Generated Revenue to recurrent expenditure is between (40 – 60)%&nbsp; or 0.04 and 0.6.This indicates the inability of the institutions to generate sufficient revenue independently to cover even the operational expenses in the short-run.&nbsp; Also, the results equally showed the highest positive operating surplus ratios of 1%-5% of operational sustainability indicating that the health institutions heavily depended on central authority’s funding for their survival. The results further revealed that none of the federal health institutions attained both intermediate and advance standards of sustainability tests. In conclusion, federal health institutions in Nigeria are heavily dependent on central authority for sustenance. Therefore, the central authorities should roll out blueprints that will make the institutions widen their internally generated revenue capacity and reduce the reliance on central authority’s funding for survival.</p> Philip Olawale Odewole, Mary Kehinde Salawu, Rafiu Oyesola Salawu Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1169 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Legal Regulation of the Use of Artificial Intelligence: Problems and Development Prospects http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1170 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">The article considers the advantages and disadvantages of using artificial intelligence (AI) in various areas of human activity. Particular attention was paid to the use of AI in the legal field. Prospects for the use of AI in the legal field were identified. The relevance of research on the legal regulation of the use of AI was proved. The use of AI raises an important problem of the compliance with general principles of ensuring human rights. Emphasis is placed on the need to develop and use a Code of ethics for artificial intelligence and legislation that would prevent its misapplication and minimize possible harmful consequences.</span></p> Olena Yara, Anatoliy Brazheyev, Liudmyla Golovko, Viktoriia Bashkatova Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1170 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Multidimensional Analysis of Ethical Leadership for Business Development http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1171 <p>Tremendous progress has been made in industry including artificial intelligence, robotics and 4<sup>th </sup>generation of industry. People in most countries work smarter, hard work is supplied by machines and automatics do constantly repeated operations. Modern technology has made work smarter, quicker and more precise than human works. But there are still many problems to tackle. Tension on effective work is much than higher. Companies prioritize well educated people. The value of the company is measured not only by the level of financial capital, either intellectual capital is also rated. There are economic reasons for prioritizing effectivity in industrial development, and intellectual capital increasing level of effectivity. On the other hand, there are some arguments for prioritizing social and ethical responsibility. Economic growth could not be the only reason for development in business. In addition, involvement in corruption scandals and environmental accidents can severely damage the reputation of a company. Innovation in management is needed. Some results of investigations in that area suggested that ethical leadership could gain negative consequences of human behavior. Finally, it has been found that the development in ethical leadership could bring the benefits for employee and employers and can increase level of productivity and thus profits of companies. The main aim of the article is to describe an investigation of ethical leadership influence on companies.</p> Jiří Bláha, Lucjan Klimsza, Aleš Lokaj, Lech Nierostek Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1171 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Mapping the Literature on Sustainability Reporting: A Bibliometric Analysis Grounded in Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1172 <p>Sustainability reporting has become an increasingly common practice among companies around the globe as around 90% of the world’s 250 largest companies from Fortune 500 prepare and publish its sustainability reporting. Aiming to help researchers to grasp the intellectual landscape of global research on sustainable reporting, we conducted a bibliometric analysis using CiteSpace software by applying evaluative and relational techniques to 928 articles published in 480 different journals in Scopus and 698 articles published in 374 different journals in Web of Science Core Collection from 1981 to 2020. Our findings indicate that the number of articles published in the field has increased rapidly, especially since 2009. We identified the leading countries (the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Canada, the Netherlands and Italy), the most prolific journals (Journal of Cleaner Production, Business Strategy and the Environment, Journal of Business Ethics), main journals categories (Business, Economics, Management and Finance, Environmental and Ecology and Science, Technology and Engineering), and the major research directions in the near future (sustainability reporting, corporate social responsibility, sustainable development, disclosure). From our findings we infer that the sustainability reporting research has just recently (2013-2019) gained traction in the literature. Moreover, our findings testify that a kind of bifurcation point has occurred is 2011 that manifests the maturity of the field of sustainability reporting. All this provides the reader with a high-view look at sustainable reporting as these quantitative findings complementing qualitative and providing valuable insights into the field.</p> Oleh Pasko, Fuli Chen, Alvina Oriekhova, Alina Brychko, Iryna Shalyhina Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1172 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 STEM Education in Ukraine in the Context of Sustainable Development http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1173 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">The conceptual and generalizing experience of STEM education implementation presented in Ukraine reflects the realization of the sustainable development goals through educational innovations. The study is based on the premise that STEM is a component of education for sustainable development. This educational trend focuses on the goals of Education for All (EFA), conforms to the ideas of the education-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and relates to solving societal challenges in the long run. It is argued that the concept of STEM seeks to offer non-standard solutions to global issues in the field of sustainable development, and STEM education should be seen as a mechanism to accelerate the achievement of all sustainable development goals (SDG) and a strategy to obtain each of them. The specifics of STEM key ideas as global educational trends in the national Ukrainian public space are demonstrated. The consideration of STEM education as a component of the strategy for sustainable development through the detailing of the structure and implementation principles as well as STEM competencies, which are defined as the expected result and key for the person of the XXI century, is proved. The experience of Ukrainian research initiatives in the field of STEM education in the context of sustainable development is summarized. A full-fledged programme complex for comprehensive, equitable and high-quality education is presented, which combines the following links: research and experimental work of different levels, teacher’s professional development, museums and science centres work, implementation of various educational programmes, festivals and projects to attract young people to STEM, ensuring equal access for girls and boys.</span></p> Oksana Buturlina, Serhii Dovhal, Heorhii Hryhorov, Tetiana Lysokolenko, Vadym Palahuta Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1173 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Justice for Judges in Ukraine: Looking for Peace and Strong Judiciary Institutions in a Sustainable Society http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1174 <p>Regarding the judiciary, the purification and lustration initiatives had been alleged as a beginning of a new stage of radical reformation, appreciated by European institutions. Therefore, in this article we will provide a detailed picture of the lustration of judges in Ukraine from the angle of its procedural guarantees as well as its legal nature; a special focus will be given to issues of efficiency of lustration restrictions, provided by the national legislation as well as its compliance within the European guidelines and Ukrainian Constitution. Lustration of judges will be analyzed regarding ordinary sanctions, enforced upon judges in case of committing disciplinary offences.</p> Mykola Rudenko, Iryna Malinovska, Serhij Kravtsov Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1174 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Behavioral Segmentation of Baby Food Consumers: Risk Areas, Possible Solutions. The Case of Ukraine http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1175 <p>The concept of this work is based on the idea of the interrelation of socio-demographic factors and factors of enterprises strategic development (baby food producers). According to the key indicators, the main components identify the psychographic characteristics of baby food consumers. Each factor included features with the highest factor load after geometric rotation by the Varimax method. The most critical areas of social status, stereotypical representation, consumer standards are found, which signal urgent problems that can be solved only if efforts of public and private solutions are combined (Foresight design). Social PR projects are a possible solution for a long-term program to expand the domestic market for baby food. The mechanism of implementation is to provide an opportunity for enterprises producing baby food products to participate in the implementation of national and regional programs to support fertility and family policy in Ukraine. It is suggested to introduce the results of marketing analysis of psychographic segmentation of consumers of baby food products into Foresight-design programs. The study proposes to integrate the marketing communication policy of baby food manufacturers and government policies in the field of fertility support in Ukraine, based on the principles of Foresight engineering for the social projects implementation.</p> Nina Shashkova, Iuliia Ushkarenko, Andrii Soloviov, Oleksii Osadchyi, Vitalii Nitsenko Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1175 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Food Waste in Catering Establishments – An Analysis of Causes and Consequences http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1176 <p>Food waste and food loss covers the entire food chain, and its scale varies depending on the given part of the chain. The aim of this study was to identify causes of food waste in the catering sector. The research was carried out in catering establishments using a specially designed questionnaire. The study was conducted in Mazowieckie Voivodship (Poland) in 2019. Forty-two questionnaires were collected. The scoring of most questions was based on a 5-point scale (e.g. 1 – never to 5 – always). It was found that the most frequently wasted products in catering establishments were those with signs of deterioration or that were expired (29% and 26.3% of respondents respectively indicated that this type of product is discarded every day). Ready elements of dishes, e.g. cooked potatoes or boiled rice that have not been served to consumers are rarely reused in the catering sector. The most frequently given reason for throwing out food included preparing too many meals, purchases that were too large, and ill-considered purchases. The results of this study may play an important role in the prevention of food waste in catering establishments by indicating which areas of employee practices should be improved by educational activities.</p> Marzena Tomaszewska, Beata Bilska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1176 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Impact of the Pandemic Covid-19 on the Human Right to Freedom of Movement http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1177 <p>The article discusses the impact of the pandemic COVID-19 on the human rights, in particular, the right to freedom of movement and free choice of residence. The purpose of the article is to investigate whether the restrictions implemented to prevent spread of the infection were legitimate and necessary. The concept and content of the right to free movement according to Ukrainian legislation has been investigated. The legitimate grounds for restriction of human rights were analyzed. The state of compliance of Ukrainian legislation with the legislation of the EU and world standards was revealed. The range of issues that Ukraine faced during the pandemic COVID-19 and limitations of human rights were disclosed. Particular attention was paid to legal acts which implemented such limitations. It was revealed that the approach of the Ukrainian legislator while implementing restrictions of human rights was unconstitutional and violated fundamental human freedoms. General and special scientific methods were used in the process of research, such as dialectical, comparative, dogmatic and legal methods.</p> Valentyn Zolka, Olha Tsarenko, Iryna Kushnir, Serhii Tsarenko, Roman Havrik Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1177 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Assessing the Impact of Social Innovation Education on Student’s Engagement http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1178 <p>This paper presents the findings of the H2020 NEMESIS project that aims to design, test and validate a consolidated approach for embedding Social Innovation in Education. Social Innovation Education (SIE) is a new educational approach that aims to empower students to take action for a more democratic and sustainable society. During the academic year 2018-2019, eight schools from five European countries applied the NEMESIS SIE framework by involving 56 teachers, 1030 students and 69 community members in a variety of SIE approaches. This paper reports on these attempts with a particular focus on analysing their impact on student’s engagement. Data were retrieved through focus groups with 80 people, an online survey to 206 students, interviews, classroom observations and students’ narratives. Research findings suggested positive outcomes for students in terms of emotional, cognitive, behavioural and agentic engagement. Findings also showed a positive influence of SIE on the cultivation and progression of students’ social innovation competences.&nbsp; These initial findings have the potential to pave the way for more research in the under investigated field of SIE as well as to encourage policies and initiatives for promoting social innovation in education.</p> Irene Kalemaki, Ioanna Garefi, Aristidis Protopsaltis Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1178 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Digitalization for Sustainable Development of Small Towns in Russia http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1179 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span class="A"><span lang="EN-US">Digitalization has become a significant trend in the development of modern humanity. The pandemic has accelerated the digitalization of most countries. They contribute to the development of new practices, open up new opportunities for communication. They also require certain skills and competencies, education. But digital environment affects people in different ways. It creates new problems and restrictions, increases risks, including increasing social inequalities. It can expand access to information, include a person in the global space, but it can also limit the world to the diagonal of a digital device. It is important to understand how the population is ready for these changes, what real opportunities it has. The digital environment is emerging in modern cities, where inclusion in it is faster. Ahead are megacities, industrial and administrative centers. But almost two thirds of the cities are small towns, where one fourth of the population of Russia lives. What are the opportunities for digitalization for the population of small towns, what are the restrictions for residents to be included in the digital space. The purpose of our study is to assess the state of digital competence of the population of small towns in the Russian Federation on the basis of their self-assessment of their readiness to function in a digital environment. The empirical basis of the study was the results of a survey conducted among the urban population of the Vologda region on a representative sample with quotas by gender and age. The study showed that there are problems in the development of the necessary competencies by residents of small towns to use the digital space.</span></span></p> Tatiana А. Guzhavina Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1179 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Design of an Indirect Dryer with Coupling of Solar Collectors and its Thermal Characterization by Drying the Mint Leaves (Mentha spicate) http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1180 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">Man has used solar energy to dry perishable products for many years, managing to preserve a wide variety of foods naturally; drying is a method that highly respects the food's properties and nutritional content. The consumption of medicinal and aromatic herbs in Mexico is traditional and widespread. In this work, an analysis of an indirect solar dryer's thermal behavior was carried out with the coupling of solar technologies (water heaters and air collectors and photovoltaic pumping as an aid to the generation of hot air) comparing with electric oven drying in Campeche, Campeche, Mexico. The experimental results showed that the indirect tunnel type dryer that works with evacuated tubes and solar air heater simultaneously is the most efficient technology, with average drying times of 300 min and final humidity of 9.6%. A study of colorimetry, water activity, and drying speed was carried out to control the drying process. It was found that it is possible to use solar energy to dry food as a means of conservation in warm-humid climates, also obtaining significant energy savings and contributing to caring for the environment.</span></p> Margarita Castillo Téllez, Beatriz Castillo-Téllez, Alberto Mejía Pérez Gerardo, Rachid Marzoug, Diana C. Mex Álvarez Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1180 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Peculiarities of The Economic Crimes Committed with the Use of Information Technologies http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1181 <p>The article looks into peculiarities of the economic crimes committed using information technologies. Different approaches to the concept of the economic crime are analyzed to reveal types of economic crimes, which can be committed with the use of information technologies. It is stated that mostly two types of economic crimes could be committed using information technologies – online fraud and forgery. Subjects and objects of a forgery committed with the use of information technologies are analyzed. Close attention is paid to the online fraud and its specific features. The classification of types of the Internet fraud is made. Some specific characteristics of certain types of the Internet fraud are given in the article. Such types of the Internet fraud as spam, carding, phishing, fraud in online games are described. The main method used in the investigation is the method of comparative analysis, which was used to reveal differences between traditional economic crimes and economic crimes committed with the use if information technologies. The general conclusion was made that economic crimes committed with help of information technologies have a number of differences compared to traditional ones. These differences determine the features of the investigation of such crimes. In particular, such features are manifested in the implementation of operational and investigative measures and investigative actions.</p> Serhii Cherniavskyi, Viktoria Babanina, Inna Vartyletska, Oleksandr Mykytchyk Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1181 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Financial Risks in the Conditions of Unstable Market Economy http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1182 <p>The necessity and significance of financial risks, which are a constant factor in the activity of any enterprise, are substantiated. It is established that for a broader understanding of the essence of financial risk it is necessary to consider it as a cumulative risk of the enterprise. The growing impact of financial risks on the results of financial and economic activities is associated with the uncertain economic situation, the instability of financial market conditions, the rapid introduction of new financial technologies and financial instruments, expanding the scope of financial relations of the enterprise. A system of financial ratios has been formed to quantify the risk of enterprises of different sizes, namely for large, medium and small enterprises, which most accurately reflect the current financial situation. Has been proven that the growing pressure of the crisis and insecurity on the part of the state will lead to the transition from the crisis in which enterprises are today, to a state of economic bankruptcy. It is established that the first place among the blocks of financial coefficients of risk assessment of enterprises is occupied by the block of business activity, then the block of profitability indicators, the block of liquidity indicators, the final block of capital structure. For each of the defined blocks the directions of increase, or optimization that will provide financial stability of the enterprise are presented.</p> Ellina Pakhucha, Iryna Sievidova, Iryna Siadrysta, Leonid Mohilevsky, Tamila Oliynik, Olga Bogdanovych Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1182 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Evaluating the Site of Avrocity as a High-Rise Residential Project in Duhok City According to LEED Sustainable Rating Criteria http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1183 <p>Duhok city faced many challenges in the last decades because of urban and population growth especially in the residential sector because there is shortage in providing housing units annually. High-rise residential projects are one of the common solutions to overcome the deficit. Yet, these kinds of residential projects have many issues since it is a new method of development within the city. From here the main aim of this study come to light which is to improve the quality of high-rise residential projects site in accordance to sustainable rating system and establish effective regulations framework with the help of internationally accepted criteria. The reason for upgrading the regulations is that the sites of these projects do not offer healthy built environment to their residents. The lack of nearby social and technical infrastructures caused more distances to be covered by vehicles resulting environmental pollution which could cause global warming. To investigate and evaluate the high-rise residential projects site according to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) sustainable rating tool, a residential project site has been chosen, which is; Avrocity project. The information had been analyzed qualitatively. The obtained results demonstrated that, the lack of updated regulations in Duhok city lead to improper planning and deficiency of services within residential projects site.</p> Riman Dhuoki, Çiğdem Çağnan Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1183 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Contracts for the Provision of Services and Labor: A Comparative Analysis Under the Ukrainian Legislation http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1184 <p>The article analyzes the legal consequences of concluding a labor contract and a contract for the provision of services. The need for such an analysis is due to the fact that employers often prefer to conclude civil law contracts with employees instead of labor contracts, since the latter are less beneficial for them. At the same time, for an employee, the conclusion of a contract for the provision of services instead of an employment contract entails the deprivation of all guarantees provided for by labor legislation. The historical prerequisites for the existence of similarities between labor and civil contracts are examined in the article. In order to distinguish between these types of contracts, a comparative analysis of the legal nature and consequences of the conclusion of an employment contract and a contract for the provision of services is carried out. The article analyzes the guarantees that are provided for by labor legislation and are aimed at ensuring the human right to work. It is concluded that when concluding civil contracts, these guarantees are lost, which significantly worsens the position of the employee. In this regard, the article analyzes the recommendations of the International Labor Organization aimed at distinguishing between civil and labor legal relations. The conclusion is made that it is necessary to consider these recommendations in the national legislation of all Member States.</p> Viktor Makovii, Svitlana Voloshyna, Yaroslav Kushnir, Iryna Mykhailova, Serhii Tsarenko Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1184 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Legal Regulation of Agricultural Taxation http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1185 <p>The tendencies of development and peculiarities of agribusiness enterprises activity are established within this research framework. Globalization and liberalization processes have spread rapidly over the past two decades, attracting more and more countries and linking their economies to the world economy. The agro-industrial sector of the economy deserves special attention in international cooperation, characterized by a particular feature, linking geopolitical, economic, social, environmental, sanitary, hygienic norms and rules. Therefore, the experience gained by countries that have long been members of the WTO and have passed certain stages of development and regulation of the tax policy of agribusiness enterprises is worth studying, analyzing, and implementing. The comparative analysis of the results of the realization of the state policy in the field of taxation of agribusiness is carried out during recent years. This research paper analyzes the generalized experience of economically developed countries in the formation of tax policy in the field of agribusiness regulation and identifies opportunities for its application in Ukraine. The study results determine the practical significance of the article, which is determined by the possibility of using the proposed mechanisms to improve the tax policy in the field of agribusiness regulation and identify opportunities for its application in Ukraine.</p> Inna Kovalchuk, Victoria Melnyk, Tamara Novak, Anna Pakhomova Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1185 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Social Issues in Supply Chain Sustainability – Focus Areas for Energy and Manufacturing sectors in India and USA http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1186 <p>The paper is a capsule to understand various social issues in supply chain, the social sustainability practices and strategies used for mitigation. Data was collected through questionnaire survey and systematic literature review of the supply chain social sustainability papers, published in peer-reviewed journals within the time frame of January 2000 to October 2020. Findings from this study show that social aspects are less researched and practiced compared to economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability. Research is still at an infancy stage in the emerging economies with very few social sustainability-centered studies focusing on practices and metrics to measure the impact of these practices. The paper identifies 26 social issues for social sustainability in supply chain for two different economies and does a comparative study. Scope of the paper is limited to Manufacturing and Energy sectors in the USA and in India to seek a possible contrasting or adhering perspective to the issues. Results and discussion pertain to the chosen sectors and geographies and provide key insight on the perspectives in the region with a conclusion on further research and mitigation methods through research and implementation of corporate practices that can help mitigate systemic social issues.</p> Prashant Unnikrishnan Nair, Parvathy Thankamony Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1186 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Contribution of SME to Regional Economic Development: On example of Adjara Autonomous Republic http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1187 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">Small and medium entrepreneurship (SME) is one of the most important sectors of the national economy. It determines the economic growth rate of the country/region and the structure of the gross national product. The article aims at evaluating the contribution of SME to the regional economic development on example Adjara A.R. (Republic of Georgia), investigating and analyzing importance of SME development at regional level and discussing the factors influence on its development. In the research section of the given article econometric analyses of SME key indicators is conducted by linear log-regression model based on statistical data of 2006-2019 years. The results of the research study show positive impacts of the number of employees and their productivity on gross value added. The study aims at underlining the government policy supporting an advantageous SME environment and conditions, which is a precondition for regional economic development.</span></p> Vladimer Glonti, Rezo Manvelidze, Iamze Surmanidze Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1187 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Assessing the Convergence of International Agricultural Markets as a Prerequisite for Rapeseed Sale at New Markets http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1188 <p>The article is devoted to the study of the state of the market of agro-industrial products, which is an integral part of the world market and one of the most important parts of the economic systems of most countries with market economies. It has been determined peculiarities of modern development of domestic export-oriented industries, among which are raw materials, dependence on market fluctuations on world markets. The analysis of oilseeds production volumes has been done, in particular rapeseed; the dynamics of export-import&nbsp; volume operations with the product group «1205 Seeds of cole or rapeseed, whether ground or not ground» has been also done. A system of indicators has been developed to assess the convergence of international agricultural markets as a prerequisite for the sale of rapeseed to new international markets. The markets of the Czech Republic and the United Arab Emirates have been identified as particularly promising markets for the sale of Ukrainian agricultural products of the commodity group «1205 Seeds of cole or rapeseed, whether ground or not ground». Assessment of the convergence indicators of the new international markets of the Czech Republic and the United Arab Emirates allowed us to conclude that these markets demonstrate convergent conditions for doing business in them by Ukrainian farmers. The most important tasks facing Ukrainian agricultural producers are substantiated: prevention of reduction of sown areas of oilseeds, production volumes of commodity group increase «12 Seeds and fruits of oilseeds», introduction to new international markets of commodity group «1205 of Ukrainian production».</p> Alona Tanasiichuk, Olha Hromova, Anastasiia Abdullaieva, Eduard Kovtun, Lina Marshuk Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1188 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Identification of Risk Factors of Food Losses in Food Processing Plants http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1189 <p>Losses take place along the entire food chain and they need to be analysed and monitored due to their impact on the development of the food sector. In addition to quantitative losses, irrational use of food contributes to the depletion of natural resources (e. g. water and energy) and poses a threat to the environment, constituting a barrier to sustainable development of the food sector. The aim of this study was to establish the causes and effects of food losses in food industry plants and to propose measures for their mitigation. The material for the study was data on losses gathered in six food industry plants located in Poland. The study was conducted on the basis of a survey. In the studied plants, 20 causes of losses were found. A fundamental role in food production is played by access to raw materials of appropriate quality. In any enterprise, the key factor responsible for the commission of errors is human. Food losses affect the food system and its balance in three dimensions: economic, social and environmental - due to the waste of resources used to produce food that is never eaten and due to greenhouse gas emissions. In summary, the risk of food losses must be prevented by eliminating any errors that may result in a product of inadequate quality characteristics.</p> Beata Bilska, Marzena Tomaszewska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1189 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Essence and Concept of Capitalization of Enterprises its Types and Methods of Evaluation http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1190 <p>The historical aspect of the development of scientists' views on the company's capitalization is studied in the work, the stages of development of the concept of cost-oriented management are determined. The role and place of market capitalization in the system of indicators of cost-oriented management are determined, modern methodical approaches to the assessment of the value of the enterprise taking into account the indicator of market capitalization are given.&nbsp; The fundamental differences between the areas of application of indicators of market value of the enterprise and market capitalization are established. The current problems of the Ukrainian economy that limit the widespread use of market capitalization in the valuation of companies are outlined, and proposals are made on the feasibility of valuing Ukrainian companies in terms of real capitalization. The importance of enterprise capitalization in the development of a market economy is emphasized. The evolution of the views of foreign scientists on the capitalization of enterprises has been studied. It is established that the economic essence of the capitalization of enterprises, as well as any asset, is the present value of future income generated by this asset. Bringing future income to the present is a process of discounting. The theory of capitalization of the company in its modern context began to be formed by neoclassical economists from the end of the XIX century. and gained popularity in the second part XX century. The theory of capitalization has given impetus to well-known neoclassical theories of corporate finance, such as the irrelevance theorem, risk theory, investment portfolio optimization theory, arbitrage pricing theory, and so on. It is established that according to the theory of capitalization, the capitalization of the enterprise and the market value of the enterprise are identical concepts, although the methods of their calculation differ. The theory of capitalization has given impetus to the development of many modern financial theories, which are currently under development and improvement.</p> Lyudmila Pronko, Tatyana Kolesnik, Oksana Samborska Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1190 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Economic Security Formation of Enterprise Under the Conditions of Steady Development http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1191 <p>The most relevant aspects of achieving economic security of enterprises are determined in the article. The assessment of the level of economic security was conducted using the method of analysis of the functioning environment. The focal points of the assessment are interests, threats and resources. The possibility of economic security strengthening of business entities is traced using analysis of economic activity of mechanical engineering companies of Vinnytsia region of Ukraine as an example. At the same time, businesses that cannot cover the cost of resources with the income from goods sale in the current year were singled out. Businesses entities positioning in the functioning environment in the context of economic security motivation (interests - increase in enterprise income, threats - growth of current and long-term liabilities, resources - use of fixed assets and employees), allowed to find opportunities to increase the efficiency of enterprises that to the greater extent are related to the manufacturing of machinery and equipment.</p> Oksana Hryvkivska, Nataliia Kotvytska, Natalia Ivanova, Nataliia Pryimak, Iryna Salkova Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1191 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Modeling of the Investment Program Formation Process of Ecological Management of the Agrarian Cluster http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1192 <p>The existence of contradictions between the natural environment and economic activity, including the functioning of agricultural clusters, has led to the need to transfer production to a qualitatively new level, associated with adaptation to environmental conditions. In this regard, the objective of this study is to develop algorithms and economic-mathematical models for environmental safety assessment and decision support in the environmental management system of the agricultural cluster. The article formulates criteria for assessing the environmental safety of agricultural enterprises, which are divided by types of environmental performance of the agricultural cluster (impact on the environment, impact on workers of enterprises participating in the cluster, impact on the environment and people through agricultural cluster products). On the basis of the specified criteria the algorithm of ecological management system estimation of the enterprises-participants of an agrarian cluster is constructed. As a result of the study, an economic and mathematical model of the formation of the investment program of the agricultural cluster was developed, aimed at protecting the environment and improving the environmental situation in general.</p> Мykola Zos-Kior, Olga Shkurupii, Iryna Hnatenko, Oleg Fedirets, Iryna Shulzhenko, Viktoriia Rubezhanska Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1192 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 The Modeling of the Production Process of High-Starch Corn Hybrids of Different Maturity Groups http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1193 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US" style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;">The article presents the results of mathematical modeling based on the construction and use of various images of the object, process or system. The research involves the study of the dependence of the level of productivity and valuable farming traits of corn hybrids in the form of mathematical models. Field research was carried out during 2011-2017 on the experimental fields of the Department of Crop Production, Breeding and Bioenergy Crops of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, at the state enterprise “Research Farm “Kordelivske” of the Institute of Potato Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine under conditions of the right-bank Forest-Steppe in accordance with the guidelines provided in “Methodology of Field Experiments in Corn”. The use of computer technology, in particular, cluster analysis, from our point of view, allows us to approach the difficult task of improving the efficiency of the correct choice of hybrids and technologies to obtain the maximum level of bioethanol yield per unit area of maize hybrids. An ecological-genetic model of quantitative traits was used to study the phenotypic productivity of corn hybrids and to establish the influence on the formation of their traits. The construction of the model is based on the hierarchy of manifestation of productivity traits in ontogenesis and the correspondence of their manifestation in organogenesis. The model consists of three modules of traits including the resulting one and double-component that reflect phenotypic implementation of the genetic formula. The resulting traits are those that have environmentally stable correlation and the highest total impact on the final resulting trait, namely, the yield. According to the results of researches of mathematical models of the influence of weather conditions on the formation of phenotypic productivity of corn hybrids of different maturity groups, both general biological regularities and group differences of trait formation have been established. Thus, the analysis of the differences between the groups of early and mid-early corn hybrids, in general reveals that their growth and development are affected to a relative extent by the amount of effective temperatures, amount of precipitation and HTC. In fact, the maturity groups studied differ insufficiently, and the main differences can be observed only in the variability of the traits studied or the closeness of their relationships with each other. However, mid hybrids respond somewhat differently to environmental factors, which allows to develop the elements of adaptive cultivation technology for each maturity group. Based on the results of cluster analysis, cluster dendrograms were created using the odd-numbered group method with the determination of Euclidean distances.</span></p> Vitalii Palamarchuk, Vadym Krychkovskyi, Inna Honcharuk, Nataliia Telekalo Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1193 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Taxes, Expenditure and Development Nexus: A Panel VECM Analysis on Romanian NUTS2 Regions http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1194 <p>The investigation starts with the computation of the Socio-Economic Development Index (SEDI index) with data for Romania. Based on the index values, the long-run relationship between taxes and expenditure is assessed, for Romanian NUTS2 regions from 2000 to 2016. According to the results, there is a Granger causality relationship from budget revenue and expenditure to SEDI. The results emphasize the significant impact of taxes and expenditure on socio-economic development. The paper underlines the need for effective public strategies to be implemented by the authorities at the regional level, which may propel the socio-economic development. The results support the fiscal synchronization hypothesis.</p> Marius Surugiu, Camelia Surugiu, Raluca Mazilescu, Anca Cristea Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1194 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Modernization of the Paradigm of the Social State on the Example of the Countries of Eastern Europe During 2010-2019 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1195 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">The study covers the countries of Eastern Europe: Ukraine, Poland, Romania and Lithuania, which have common borders, similar history, mentality and are characterized by the dominance of the social democratic model of the welfare state, which is essentially aimed to undertake primary responsibility for financing basic social standards from the state budget. The study focuses on the basic indicators that show the state’s approach to education, health care and employment. In order to establish and analyze the changes that have taken place in the social state standards of the studied countries, the ten-year period from 2010 to 2019 was covered. The statistical data that reflect the expenditures on education and medicine from the volume of GDP of each state budget as well as the unemployment rate are analyzed. Positive dynamics has been established for all studied countries during the ten-year period in the financing of such areas as education and medicine. Optimistic indicators of the reduced number of unemployed in Poland, Romania and Lithuania were revealed. It has been established that the governments of Ukraine, Poland, Romania and Lithuania have similar approach to financing basic social needs. The role of civil society in the development of the welfare state and the new trends of nations’ movement towards the construction of a rational economy, social standards and political stability are considered.</span></p> Olha P. Antipova, Iryna O. Dmytryk, Vita M. Surzhenko, Igor G. Kudrya, Larysa S. Tarasiuk Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1195 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Modelling the Relationship between Linked-In Usage and Social Capital Formation http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1196 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">The main purpose of this study is to test if the use of social networking sites (SNSs) results in any perceived social capital for the users. Putnam’s classification of social capital into bridging and bonding social capital is used for the study. The first objective of the study was to study the demographic and behavioral profile of LinkedIn users. The second objective was to test the model describing the relationship between the constructs intensity of LinkedIn usage and the two types of social capital. A structured questionnaire that included standard scales for measuring the constructs was shared on various social media platforms. The model was analyzed using PLS-SEM in R software. The results confirmed all the three hypothesized relationships and also validated the overall model. This study contributes to the validation as well as extension of social capital theory in SNS. Further, the results throw light on the new applications of SNS by the industry. </span></p> Najmul Hoda, S. L. Gupta, Mobin Ahmad, Utkarsh Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1196 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Socio-Economic Risk Assessment and Peril Analysis in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Emergencies http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1197 <p>The article proposes a methodology for assessing socio-economic risks and analysing perils in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and emergencies, and presents the results of its testing. The methodology allows assessing changes in labour risks by possible values of internal indicators. This makes it possible to develop scenario approaches in case of a change in quarantine restrictions or their lifting. Testing of the developed methodology for assessing socio-economic risks and analysing perils caused by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the domestic labour market and employment is based on determining changes in economic conditions of risk emergence and occurrence, direct employment risks, and assessment of socio-economic consequences of risks in case of strict quarantine measures during the 2<sup>nd</sup> quarter of 2020. A feature of the proposed scientific and methodological support for assessing socio-economic risks and analysing perils in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic is taking into account the basic principles of the European system of social indicators using quantitative methods of assessing social risks in the workplace. The practical significance of the obtained results is that the introduction of the developed scientific and methodological support, and practical recommendations will promote the development of preventive measures to deal with socio-economic risks and perils in the domestic labor market and employment, to improve social protection during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to prioritise the government measures based on the risk ranking according to the occurrence, and the impact probability.</p> Olga Novikova, Olena Khandii, Larisa Shamileva Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1197 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Regional Competitiveness as an Aspect Promoting Sustainability of Latvia http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1198 <p>Providing of sustainability is one of the main priorities in normative documents in various countries. Factors affecting regional competitiveness is seen as close to them determining sustainability in many researches. The aim of this research was to identify and evaluate main factors of competitiveness for statistical regions of Latvia to promote sustainable development of the country, applying the complex regional competitiveness assessment system developed by the author. The analysis of the Regional Competitiveness Index (RCI) and its sub-indexes showed that each statistical region has both: factors promoting and hindering competitiveness. Overall the most competitive is Riga statistical region, but the last place takes Latgale statistical region. It is possible to promote equal regional development and sustainability of Latvia by implementing well-developed regional development strategy and National Action Plan. To develop such strategies, it is necessary to understand the concept of sustainable competitiveness. To evaluate sustainable competitiveness of Latvia and its regions it is necessary to develop further the methodology of regional competitiveness evaluation.</p> Ilze Judrupa Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1198 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 On the World Co2 Emission Equitable Transition Design and Its Implementation: Theory and Empirical Data http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1199 <p>This paper designs the transition trajectory for Co2 emissions that considers the impact on inequality both across countries and generations and introduces elements for its implementation. The intercountry and intergenerational equities are discussed and found, for the first, in terms of equal cumulated per capita emissions, for the second, both in terms of temperature growth control and capacity to ensure an equal future yearly amount of emission per generation. These definitions allow enquiring which country is behaving fairly and, consequently, which system may be introduced to compensate. Once the emission trajectory is defined, its implementation and the deviances management can be structured through a quasi-decentralised dynamic cap and trade system. Theory and empirical data for the design and its management are provided.</p> Demetrio Miloslavo Bova Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1199 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Development of a Calculation Basis for the Goals and Objectives of Innovation Management at Industrial Enterprises in the Context of Post-Conflict Transformation http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1200 <p>Innovation management objectives completion phases at the industrial enterprise were developed. At the first phase a hierarchy of the corporate goals is formed. It is based on the expert and creative decision-making methods for the areas of the company's activity (production area, managerial - human resource management, financial, marketing, information-technological) and management levels (strategic, tactical, operational). The expert assessments in the second phase identify the initial goals of the innovation management system. In the third phase the relationship between goals and existing innovations in the corporation are defined. At this stage, a system of innovation management goals is formed. The proposed structure and method for forming an innovation corporate base consisting of two modules (the individual and group innovation bases), the basis of which consists of a set of job assignments and corresponding to each job assignment a combination of individual and group innovations or knowledge about them. Each task corresponds to a specific goal of managing innovation. The economic impact of introducing an integrative approach to innovation management in industrial enterprises is calculated.</p> Yuliia Klius, Yevhen Ivchenko, Alexander Rozmyslov, Vilen Fatalov Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1200 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Optimizing the Resultativeness of Adapting an Economic Entity to the Conditions of Digitalization http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1201 <p class="03ABSTRACT">The paper discusses theoretical approaches to the concept of resultativeness, considers and substantiates modern approaches to adapting an economic entity to the conditions of digitalization. In this study, a formula for calculating the resultativeness of adaptation was established, taking into account the potential capabilities of an economic entity. On the basis of the proposed formula, possible quantitative values <span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">​​</span>of the resultativeness of adapting an economic entity to the conditions of digitalization are studied and their interpretation is provided. The paper reveals the economic essence of the absolute and relative differences between the performance indicators of an economic entity, which describe the result of adaptation to digitalization conditions. The components of adaptation resultativeness and a list of expressions describing them are presented. In the course of the study, the resultativeness of adaptation was determined using two research methods: deductive and inductive ones. Based on the results of the study, an algorithm for finding the optimal value of the resultativeness of adaptation in the context of digitalization and its costs is proposed. This algorithm will allow determining the optimal value of the resultativeness of adaptation in the context of digitalization and its costs, based on the calculation of the quantitative value of the resultativeness of adaptation of the enterprise and a retrospective analysis of the components of the resultativeness and costs of adaptation using the Nelder-Mead simplex method.</p> Angela Mottaeva, Julia Stepanova, Natalia Meshkova, Galina Semenova Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1201 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Impact of Information Technology on the HR Practices in the Public Sector: Evidence from the Republic of Kosovo http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1202 <p>Nowadays, people are the most difficult beings to manage due to their complexity and complex nature. Human Resources in the public sector are structures that we must provide impartial treatment, ethical standards, and promote a value-based system. Human Resource Management (HRM) plays an important role in the development of a country, and in particular, in the implementation of strategic activities for the civil service in Public Administration. Recently, Information Technology (IT) has impacted&nbsp; all actions of society, as well as organizational processes including HRM processes and practices.</p> <p>Currently, Information Technology is making great changes, starting from the fact that it is impacting the public sector workers to attend training, in order for them to acquire different skills such as using IT developments, gaining new knowledge, skills, and using programs in different fields where more productive and profitable results are obtained. In this research paper, we have used two statistical extraction techniques which are OneWay ANOVA and Chi Square, which show that there is no difference between groups in the acquisition of the institution's policies, and also expresses the significance of the relationship between the main issues of active employees in developing knowledge in the use of IT in the public sector.</p> Hamdi HOTI, Arbër H. HOTI, Edisona KURHASKU Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1202 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Factors Affecting International and National Tourist Arrivals (1974-2020) in Leh District (U.T. Ladakh, India) http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1204 <p>Since 1974, tourists are attracted in Leh district for its mountainous landscape, environment, high altitude lakes, Indus River, beautiful villages and Himalayan people living in scenography valleys filled of Buddhist heritage sites. All makes this region a great place for adventure sports, sightseen, cultural and religious tourism. Tourism industry has rapidly become one of the most important aspects of District development paths. Visitors bring hard currency and spend money contributing to monetary economic boom that can have both positive and negative impacts on the society and territory. Tourism in Leh District has a short season (from May to October) but a highly profitable business especially with national visitors increasing by the day. This study, based on data collected from the Tourism Department in Leh, analyses the international and national tourist arrivals in time series to find out pattern and trends in the historical data and investigate global and local factors affecting tourist inflows (rises or falls) in the District. Yearly arrivals depends on several factors and issues as geopolitical and global economic problems, new trends in tourist destinations, film induced tourism, climate changes, natural disasters, pandemic and more. These unpredictable factors affect tourist flows, decreasing or increasing the arrivals even drastically. The long-term sustainability of the local development must not depend mainly on mass tourism because economic dependence on only one, although promising but fluctuating sector, pose several problems (e.g. impacts and pressure on infrastructures, environment and significant socio-cultural changes.</p> Vladimiro Pelliciardi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1204 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100