European Journal of Sustainable Development https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd en-US editor@ecsdev.org (Prof. Gian Paolo Caselli) contact@ecsdev.org (Diamantina Allushaj) Thu, 01 Jun 2023 22:52:43 +0200 OJS 3.2.1.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Venture Financing as Support for the Sustainable Model of Post-War Rebuilding in Ukraine https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1386 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">Currently, the Ukrainian economy faces a measure of challenges, caused by damages, losses and qualitative impacts. The primary ideas of post-war rebuilding have been conducted and presented at an international conference in Lugano, Switzerland. At this conference, the main primary areas for post-war rebuilding have been divided to be realized within the post-war rebuilding plan for the following ten years. The primary goal of the plan is to provide a unique chance not only to compensate for damage caused by the war but also to accelerate economic growth and improve quality of life in Ukraine. Thereby, there is an urgent need to describe a wide range of possible financial resources to support post-war rebuilding, based on innovative development and criteria of sustainable growth. The current research problem lays in the innovative forms of financial support following key principles of sustainable post-war rebuilding in Ukraine, namely stages of stability, restoration and modernization. The functional directions of post-war rebuilding are defined within the Ukraine recovery conference as of 2022 that are provided as continuation of the previous Ukraine reform conferences. The current research aims to represent the division of functional direction within the stages of stability, restoration and modernization, defining the necessary amounts of resources to be attracted for these stages. The capacity of venture financing is analyzed in the context of sustainable transformations within the post-war rebuilding process. As a result, the business angels are defined as an attractive source of financial support for the stability stage of post-war rebuilding in Ukraine, aiming to overcome the main part of damages and loss, caused by the full-scale war. The restoring stage is connected with long-term support of innovative projects within a sustainable restoring strategy. Venture funds and international organizations are important actors to conduct sustainable financing at micro- and macro-level. The venture capital divisions of specialized corporations and investment banks tend to provide financial and consulting support at the modernization stage of the post-war rebuilding process.</span></p> <p class="04KEYWORD"><em><span lang="EN-US">Keywords: innovative development, financial support, sustainable development, venture financing.</span></em></p> Iuliia Gernego, Mykhailo I. Dyba, Tetiana Shkoda, Mykhailo V. Dyba Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1386 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 An Assessment of China’s Power Expansion in Asia Through the Lens of the Belt and Road Initiative https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1387 <p>In the age of globalization, interdependence and trade cooperation between nations is at an all-time peak. The Belt and Road Initiative by China is one of the most significant projects undertaken by a nation toward infrastructural development in the world and sees growth in about 70 countries and organizations. While the project's scope strictly emphasizes strategic infrastructural development for global purposes, separating China's foreign policy and diplomatic ambitions from this project is challenging. In the presented report, the case of the Belt and Road Initiative has been examined comprehensively, with a high degree of attention on the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor projects for the impact of China’s rise in Asia and implications for the geopolitical balance of the region. Using a comprehensive literature survey, this study finds that while China indeed achieves the objective of economic growth through the project, it is also a cornerstone of Chinese foreign policy in the region. This threatens the security and sovereignty of other nearby nations already facing adversarial relations with China, including Tibet, Taiwan, and India. China’s oppression and disregard for their sovereignty will likely increase for these nations as the Chinese government gets more diplomatic leverage in its international relations through the Belt and Road Initiative.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Keywords: Asia, Belt and Road Initiative, BRI and CPEC, China foreign policy, Chinese diplomacy, superpower.</p> Naima Dmini Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1387 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Light Pollution and Sea Turtles Nest-Site Selection. Is it Possible a Practical Management of the Problem? https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1388 <p>Artificial light at night (ALAN) pollution is a topic of growing concern globally, in particular along coasts where the number of cities is increasing. The problem is both economic and environmental, as in the case of the selection of the nesting site by the Caretta caretta sea turtles. In fact, even in a poorly lit municipality like Castiglione della Pescaia (Tuscany, Italy), 140 light sources have been identified near the beaches with different types of shielding and intensity. The localization and characterization of these night lighting sources was achieved through both field and satellite measurements. In this paper we propose a practical management of both the general and the specific problem of the case study with an approximate estimate of the costs involved in replacing the lamps with the greatest impact on the conservation of sea turtles.</p> <p><em>Keywords: conservation; Italy; light pollution; nest-site selection; sea turtles; Tuscany</em></p> Davide Di Bari, Claudia Tiberti, Elena Mazzei, Luana , Papetti, Daniele Pagli Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1388 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Knowledge Ecosystem: A Sustainable Theoretical Approach https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1389 <p>A Knowledge Ecosystem (KE) refers to a system of interconnected components that work together to create, share, and use knowledge. It includes the processes, tools, and platforms that support the creation, dissemination, and application of knowledge. A knowledge ecosystem’s main attribute is to generate new knowledge and valuable open-ended solutions for the participating actors that drive innovation, improve decision-making, and support learning and growth. This paper provides an overview of the knowledge ecosystem concept, which gain traction in recent research, with a focus on how the knowledge ecosystem is organised and the relationship between components. This paper contributes to research on knowledge ecosystems by describing not only knowledge ecosystem forms of organisation, but also the main methodological approaches used in the evaluation of the concept.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Keywords: Knowledge Ecosystem, Prefigurative Organisation, Partial Organisation, Methodological Approaches</em></p> Ana Iolanda VODĂ, Sergiu BORTOŞ, Daniela Tatiana ŞOITU Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1389 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Barriers to Product Innovations: A Theoretical Knowledge and Research Framework https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1390 <p>The essential role of product innovations for company’s sustainability and growth leads researchers to explore the scientific literature and provide knowledge that helps the conduction of empirical researches on this topic. The paper brings light to the critical points of the product innovation process that can create obstacles to development of successful innovations. The main purpose of the paper is to investigate, summarize and establish an understanding of the barriers to product innovations. The paper applies “systematic literature review” as a research method to explore theoretical findings of other authors. The systematic literature review collects multiple literature sources and summarizes them to answer the defined in the paper specific research questions. Investigating the research questions, the author of the current paper introduces two groups of barriers to product innovations – general barriers and specific barriers. The paper provides an original and a new aspect of researching the barriers to product innovations. It gives new directions for investigating the barriers to product innovations – exploring the different stages of the product innovation process and seeking for obstacles within them that companies struggle with. The presented systematic literature review supports the construction of specific empirical indicators and variables, also defined in the paper, which researchers can use for conduction of studies in the field of product innovations. The paper also suggests measurement definitions and sample questions to navigate the researchers to formulate proper questionnaires that provide adequate answers.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Keywords: barriers to product innovations, obstacles, product innovations, empirical indicators, variables, innovation studies, sample questions</em></p> Katerina Kozludzhova Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1390 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Using Materiality Analysis to Determine Actual and Potential Company Impacts on Sustainable Development https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1391 <p>To contribute to sustainable development companies are called to identify and manage their impacts in a transparent and reliable manner. Materiality Analysis in sustainability reporting helps companies determine the threshold at which sustainability topics become sufficiently important to be included in the report, according to significant organisation’s impacts and to stakeholder’s interests and concerns. To deliver the highest level of transparency for organisational impacts on the economy, environment, and people, the latest version of Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines, the “Universal Standard 2021”, propose to identify and assess both actual and potential material impacts. In light of this suggestion, the present paper proposes the Materiality Cube as a practical and structured approach for supporting the analysis of organisation’s impacts. The proposed tool allows to evaluate the materiality of impacts considering the company’s strategy, sustainability performance and stakeholder expectations. By comparing the positioning of sustainability topics under the three assessment dimensions, companies can improve the overall process of determining materiality and the accountability towards stakeholders: they can act to address and account for the most material impacts and identify those that could become material over time since they result much more significant from one perspective than the others. An illustrative application of the proposed Materiality Cube completes the paper.</p> <p><em><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Keywords: Materiality Analysis, Sustainability Reporting, Sustainability Impacts, Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Guidelines, Stakeholder engagement</em></p> Tamara Menichini , Gennaro Salierno Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1391 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The Role of the Virtual Economy in Advancing Sustainable Development: Exploring Network Semantics, Cyber Risks, and Digitalization https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1392 <p>This study explores the role of the virtual economy in advancing sustainable development through an examination of network semantics, cyber risks, and digitalization. The article emphasizes the need for professionals to adapt to new innovations and conditions in order to thrive in the virtual economy. The article aims to highlight the new vectors of language culture and virtual economic semantics and demonstrate the importance of developing foreign language professional information and communication competencies among individuals involved in the digitalization of various aspects of life. The virtual economic environment is analyzed in the context of sustainable development, focusing on cyberspace’s primary risks and challenges, and other factors that contribute to the need for a new language paradigm of virtual competence are examined. The study concludes that to succeed in the virtual economy, it is crucial to prioritize professional foreign language training and develop a new type of specialist who can work in the virtual global economy.</p> <p>In addition, the article analyzes the virtualization process of the global economic system, its development and deployment in various sectors, and identifies the relationship between the development and deployment of the virtualization process and the information technology market. The study notes that the digitization of processes in various spheres of economic activity is one of the main global trends in the development of modern society, and the definition of the term “digital economy” is analyzed. Finally, the study considers the main types of information and communication technologies and tools used in modern technologies of digitalization of the economy, and their potential for advancing sustainable development.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong><em>Keywords: digitalization, sustainable development, information society, postmodern language competence, network semantics, foreign language professional information and communication competence, virtual economy, virtual communities.</em></p> Svitlana Khrypko, Qi Yang, Alla Ishchuk, Volodymyr Zabolotnyuk, Igor Zabolotniuk, Hanna Salo Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1392 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Oil Price Fluctuation, Business and Economic Growth Effect: Evidence from Nigeria https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1393 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">Nigeria’s economic and business climate vulnerabilities are largely instigated by oil price fluctuation through oil market and production alterations. The study scrutinises oil price fluctuation symmetric effect on the business climate, economic growth and macroeconomic indicators using daily data from 2012–2022. To accomplish this goal, the structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) and autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) methodologies were adopted and incorporated to examine the long- short-run symmetric effect using realised volatility as an indicator of oil price fluctuation. Findings revealed long-short run persistent oil price shock effect on macroeconomic indicators, economic growth and business climate. To reduce the oil demand-supply chain risk exposure and disruption. Economic diversification and investments in trade and non-trade sectors are recommended. A significant nexus between oil prices and macroeconomic indicators was observed using the SVAR model when there is shocks in oil price.</span></p> <p class="04KEYWORD"><em><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">Keywords: oil price; exchange rate; symmetric; SVAR, ARDL, economic growth, macroeconomic indicators</span></em></p> Ben Etim Udoh, Ishaku Prince Abner, Joy Ifeoma Enemuo, Shedrack Chinwuba Moguluwa, Catherine Chinyere, Ikechukwu Attamah, Emmanuel Samuel Udo Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1393 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Sustainability assessment of the main cereals market in Morocco: Evaluating production and import https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1394 <p>Agriculture is a fundamental pillar of Morocco's economy, contributing an average of 12,5% of GDP over the period 2000-2020 and helping to fight the rural exodus. Cereal crops play a major role in national agriculture, in which the main cereals, particularly wheat, occupying an important place in the dietary habits of rural and urban populations, although barley has a predominant place in animal feed. Moreover, food security in Morocco is based on cereal crops. This study aims to evaluate the evolution of the area under crop, the yield, and grain production in Morocco between 1930 and 2020, and the imports of main grains, based on the statistical approach in order to deduce the food security in the cereal sector.</p> <p>The results obtained show that the area cultivated to the main cereals has almost doubled between the decade 1930-1940 and the decade 2010-2020. Soft wheat is the type of cereal that has increased significantly compared to durum wheat and barley. As for cereal production, it is subject to strong fluctuations due to the drought, with a coefficient of variation of 46%. The favorable agro-ecological zone produces 44% of the main cereals in Morocco. Moreover, grain imports multiplied by 917%, particularly bread, a basic element of the diet, where each Moroccan consumes an average of 255 kg per year of wheat, almost fourfold the world average. In addition, Morocco moved from self-sufficiency to dependence on food grain imports after independence, where the import dependency ratio (IDR) reached 39,8% compared to 60,2% for food self-sufficiency (SRR). This indicates the failure of the agricultural policy in the cereal sector. Also, in this study, the requirement of food-grain (R) has been calculated in the time horizon to 2030 and 2050, especially for wheat.</p> <p>Keywords: Main cereals, Yield, Import Dependency Ratio, Food security, Morocco</p> Mohamed Belmahi, Mohamed Hanchane, Aziz Mahjoub, Fatima Najjari, Anass Khayati, Ridouane Kessabi Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1394 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Age of Economic Alliances - How SMEs Win the Market Using Alliances in Turbulent Times https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1395 <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">The years of the pandemic meant more than a test to prove the maturity of the states - it was a good exercise for the business community around the world, to prove that it can survive extremely harsh conditions. Over the two years of the pandemic, SMEs have learned that the only way to survive is to work together, within strategic alliances, for a common goal - to make enough profit to survive.</span></p> <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">This strategy of alliances in the field of SMEs was a response of the Romanian entrepreneurship to the competitive fight on the market, where the big companies, in order to obtain huge profits even if there was a cataclysm going on, did not "play" honestly and “attacked’’ the few clients the SMEs had. On the other hand, small businesses have learned that "working together" is synonymous with "surviving." The synergy relationship achieved between small companies, transposed into economic alliances, are true examples of business.</span></p> <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">Through our research, we wanted to see how these companies acted so we have created a model by which new entrants can develop these strategic alliances to grow quickly, gain customers, and cope with the turbulent environment in which they operate daily. For this, we performed a statistical and econometric analysis, using as a tool a questionnaire applied to a number of 156 SMEs in Bucharest-Ilfov and Giurgiu, as well as the output provided by the SPSS for Windows application. Preliminary results have shown us the existence of strategic alliances, which we later studied in order to create a model called the Survival Alliance in Modern Era (SAME). This model can be used as an important element of any strategy, a starting point in the rapid, sustainable, and efficient development of an SME, that is at the beginning of the road and wants to have a word in the market in which it operates.</span></p> <p class="03ABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">Key Words: Strategic alliances SMEs, Business strategy</span></p> Genoveva Da Costa LUPÉDIA, Constantin-Iulian TĂNAȘCU, Dumitru-Alin STATIE, Robert-Andrei COSTACHE Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1395 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Sustainability Aspects of the Construction Industry and Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Opportunities https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1396 <p>The relevance of the research and its significance are being determined by the fact that changes in economic and environmental development could affect the tendencies of the development of the real estate market and construction industry, and entrepreneurship within these sectors, and vice versa. As time passes, the participants of real estate sectors face numerous challenges, and it could be useful to find the possible improvement opportunities for economic analysis and management. The aim of the research is to analyse the factors affecting the real estate market, construction industry and related entrepreneurship in changing environment in the context of sustainable economic and environmental development, paying particular attention to the tendencies within these sectors. The literature, historical, comparative analysis and logical access methods have been used in the research. The conducted analysis could help in the improvement of the entrepreneurial activities for the sustainable development of the real estate market and construction industry.</p> <p><em>Keywords: changing environment, economic sustainability, entrepreneurial aspects, real estate development, real estate entrepreneurship, real estate market, sustainable construction</em></p> Linda Kauškale, Jānis Zvirgzdiņš, Ineta Geipele Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1396 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Resilient Strategies of International Marketing Segmentation https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1397 <p>In the new realities, Ukrainian businesses faced many challenges. A significant number of companies suffered material losses as a result of hostilities on the territory of their operations, and many companies were forced to leave their permanent location and resume their business activities in a new place.</p> <p>Entering the international markets of Ukrainian enterprises has become a new prospect for their recovery.</p> <p>The study improves the methodology of international marketing segmentation by grouping it by parameters. With the help of this methodology and certain parameters that are relevant for the domestic agro-industrial business, the markets of foreign countries with indicators as close as possible to the Ukrainian economy were identified, and the assessment result allowed to draw conclusions about the entry of domestic enterprises offering milk and dairy products to new international markets.</p> <p>To segment more than 160 international markets, the following indicators were chosen as parameters: "Share of agricultural products in total GDP", "Average distance between partner countries with all importers", "Distance between the partner market and the Ukrainian market", "Difference between the average permissible distance for the international market and the Ukrainian market, km", "Average tariff (estimated) for exports applied by the relevant market", "Assessment of favorable business conditions", "Trade balance". The study identified the demand for the product group "04 Milk and dairy products" in 160 international markets and recommended that Ukrainian producers of milk and dairy products make marketing decisions to enter the markets of the European Union: Greece, Bulgaria, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, France, and Finland, which are divergent markets for the export of milk and dairy products from Ukraine.</p> <p><em>Keywords: resilient strategies, international marketing segmentation, barriers, and risks of entering international markets, innovative approaches to forming a strategy international markets segmentation, grouping by parameters, strategy for entering new markets, markets are convergent for the export,</em></p> Alona Tanasiichuk, Svitlana Kovalchuk, Iryna Polishchuk, Iryna Stankevych, Yuri Neustroiev , Oksana Tupchiy Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1397 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Local Development Evaluation - A Methodological Proposal https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1398 <p>The absence of the evaluation of local development in academic literature reflects the lack of debate at present, but also the need for analysis of evaluation proposals and models. This article aims to present the results of recent research work in this field, seeking to contribute to the debate around the evaluation of local development. Through exploratory interviews with 20 key informants with links to Animar - Portuguese Association for Local Development as the representative entity of Social Economy in Portugal, its analysis resulted in a "political-administrative space" of evaluation and the local development evaluation, a methodological proposal of an evaluation proposal with 7 dimensions of analysis and 37 indicators. It is concluded that the evaluation of local development based on the proposed model generates a set of possibilities, by contributing to a local diagnosis through the auscultation of the entities of the social economy sector.</p> <p><em>Key Words: Local Development; Social Economy; Evaluation</em></p> Marco Domingues, Alcides A. Monteiro Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.ecsdev.org/ojs/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1398 Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0200